DBMS Architecture

DBMS architecture describes the construction and how the clients are associated with a particular database framework/system. It also influences the performance of the database as it assists with the design, creation, execution, and keeping up of the database management system. This article gives an outline of the various types of DBMS architectures along with their benefits and demerits. This article describes the significance of DBMS architecture and gives knowledge of the various types of DBMS structures or architectures.


While arranging any structure, the architects design and develop the association or organization and the design of the individual components used to assemble the entire design or structure and their connections. This decides the structural integrity and strength of the whole complex, i.e., the architecture defines the structure’s performance.

This idea is also true in the case of the database management system. The DBMS architecture influences the performance of the database as it assists with the design or planning, creation, implementation, and keeping up with the database management system. The database management system configuration depends upon the DBMS architecture for its representation. It depicts the construction or structure and the manner by which the clients are associated with a particular database system.

In this article, we will investigate the various different types of DBMS structures or architectures alongside their real-life examples.

A database management system is a software that deals with a database by storing, manipulating, and retrieving the data from a database. Oracle, MySQL, and many more are well-known DBMS devices or tools. A few functions of the Database Management System are:

  • A database management system (DBMS) gives a point of interaction to perform various different exercises like the creation, deletion, and modification of the data.
  • A database management system (DBMS) permits/allows clients to design databases as per their necessities.
  • It guarantees the database’s well-being or safety by giving security designs like protection, verification, confirmation, and two-step verification to ensure access to only approved or authorized clients.
  • A database management system (DBMS) is a collection of programs that respond to user commands.
  • It can be easily used using the queries.

Types of DBMS Architecture

Database management systems are divided into multiple tiers or layers or degrees for appropriate working. These modules/layers portray the working and the design of the DBMS.

Since a database management system isn’t generally directly open by the client or an application, we can keep up with it with the assistance of different architecture or designs based on how the client is associated with the database. These designs follow a tier-based classification, i.e., DBMS architecture is characterized by relying/depending on the number of layers that are available in the construction or structure of the DBMS.

Consequently, an n-level or tier DBMS Architecture divides the entire DBMS into related yet n-free layers or levels, i.e., a one-level/tier design or architecture separates the DBMS into single layers, a two-tier DBMS architecture isolates the DBMS into two different layers, a three-tier in three layers, etc. At the point when the layers are expanded in the architecture, the degree or level of deliberation or abstraction also increments, resulting in an expansion in the security and complexity of the DBMS structure. All these large numbers of layers are independent, i.e., any change acted in a specific layer doesn’t influence the other layer present in the architecture.

Currently, how about we check out the most widely recognized DBMS architectures:

  • One-Tier Architecture (Single Tier Architecture)
  • Two-Tier Architecture
  • Three-Tier Architecture

1] One-Tier Architecture

  • All the parts of DBMS, i.e., the server, database, and client, reside on a single system.
  • Its architecture is quite simplest.
  • Used when data isn’t evolving oftentimes.
  • The client can straightforwardly get to the database.
  • Suitable for software engineers, programmers, database designers, and single-client access.

Single Tier DBMS Architecture is the most simple DBMS architecture. All the DBMS parts reside on a single server or stage, i.e., the database is straightforwardly open to the end user. As a result of this immediate association or connection, the DBMS gives a quick reaction, because of which software engineers or programmers generally utilize this design or architecture to improve the local application.

In this construction or structure, any changes done by the user or client are reflected straightforwardly in the database, and all the handling is finished on a single server. Additionally, no network connection is expected to perform activities on the database. This database management system is otherwise called the nearby or local database system.

One Tier Architecture
One-Tier Architecture

Single Tier DBMS Architecture is utilized at whatever point:

  • No various clients are getting to the database system.
  • The data isn’t changed every now and again.
  • We really want a quick and straightforward method for modifying or accessing the database for application improvement.

Example of One-Tier DBMS Architecture:

To gain proficiency with the Structure Query Language (SQL), we set up our SQL server and the database on our local system. This SQL server empowers us to straightforwardly cooperate with the relational database and execute specific activities or operations without requiring any network connection. This entire arrangement to learn SQL queries is an example of a One-Tier DBMS design or architecture.

2] Two-Tier Architecture

  • Faster access, Easier to keep up with, and can deal with different clients at the same time.
  • It is quite similar to a client-server architecture.
  • Used when we wish to get to DBMS by means of utilizations and APIs.
  • Has versatility, scalability, and security issues due to coordinate client-server connection.

Two-Tier DBMS Architecture is the key concept of client-server architecture. In a two-level design or structure, the server gives the database functionality and it permits the users to perform operations on the database through an immediate web or internet connection by means of APIs (Application Programming Interface).

For example:

  • Java Database Connectivity (JDBC).
  • Open Database Connectivity (ODBC).

The Two-Tier DBMS Architecture is utilized when we want to get to the DBMS with the help of an application. User-side applications can get to the database server straightforwardly with the help of API calls, making the application autonomous to independent of the database concerning activity/operation, design, and programming.

Two Tier Architecture
Two-Tier Architecture

The principal benefits of having two-level/tier architecture over a single level are:

  • Numerous clients can utilize it simultaneously. Consequently, it very well may be used in an organization.
  • It has a high ability to handle as the server takes care of the database functionality.
  • Quicker access to the database because of the immediate association or connection and further improved execution.
  • In light of the two free layers or independent layers, it’s more straightforward to keep up with.

Examples of Two Tier DBMS Architecture:

Consider what is happening when you went to a bank to pull out some money. In the wake of entering the withdrawal amount and the account details on the withdrawal slip, the banker will go through the server-side database by means of his credential (API call) and will check regardless of whether there is a sufficient balance present. This client-server model is an example of Two-Tier DBMS engineering.


  • Adaptability or Scalability: As the quantity of clients expands, the load on the server increments. In this way declining the performance of the DBMS and, thus, the client-side application.
  • Security: The Direct association or connection between the client and server systems makes this design helpless against attacks.

3] Three-Tier Architecture

  • Has complexity and upkeep issues due to the additional layer.
  • Enhanced security, information uprightness or data integrity, and versatility or scalability.
  • Most broadly utilized DBMS architecture.
  • Follows Client-Application-Server architecture.

Three-Tier DBMS Architecture is the most generally used DBMS architecture in which one more layer known as the Intermediate or Application layer is added between the server (Database Layer) and the client (Presentation Layer) systems to decrease the query handling load of the server. This application or halfway or intermediate layer gives the end client an abstract perspective on the database.

Since there is no immediate association between the client and the Server, all the client demands are dealt with by the Application Layer, i.e., the solicitations sent by the clients are checked and confirmed by the Intermediate Layer prior to moving them to the server. This lessens the inquiry handling load from the server and upgrades the security of the general DBMS plan as the client can’t discuss straightforwardly with the information base server. Thus, the application layer is liable for load adjusting, question demand accuracy, and security in Three-Tier DBMS Architecture.

In Three Tier DBMS Architecture, an extra layer (Application Layer) is added between the User and the Server. This expands the number of layers present between the DBMS and the end-users, making the execution of the DBMS structure complicated and hard to keep up with.

The three-level DBMS architecture is an expansion of the two-level architecture where a middle-of-the-road layer, i.e., the Application layer is added between the client and the server. It is the most generally utilized architecture.

Three Tier Architecture

The principal benefits of Three Tier DBMS Architecture are:

Data Integrity: Data debasement/corruption and terrible requests can be kept away from due to the checks acted in the application layer on every client request.
Security – Expulsing the immediate association or connection between the client and server systems through deliberation abstraction decreases unapproved access to the database.

Adaptability or Scalability: Since the database server doesn’t know about any clients past the application layer and the application layer carries out load adjusting, there can be however many clients you need.


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